Storms. Hurricane Gonzolo was downgraded from a Category 4 to a Category 3, and finally to a Category 2 storm when it struck Bermuda on Friday, Oct. 17, 2014, with sustained winds of 110mpn (175km/h). No deaths or injuries were reported, but the island suffered heavy wind and rain damage, power outages, and storm surge flooding from 40 ft. (12m) waves. Gonzolo is expected to track north from Bermuda, grazing Newfoundland, and then curving east toward the British Isles.
Also on October 17, out in the Pacific, Tropical Storm Ana which was headed for Hawaii with sustained winds of 80mph (135kmh) veered south and missed the Big Island by 155 miles (250km). Ana’s outer bands brought some wind and rain to the islands.
New Satellites. On Sept. 20, 2014, NASA launched JPL’s RapidScat to help meteorologists spot hurricanes developing in their earliest stages. RapidScat, lodged on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS), measures surface wind speed and direction over the ocean. Using this early information, weather forecasters are able to make much more accurate predictions about a storm’s eventual path and strength.
NASA’s SMAP satellite, scheduled for launch in January, 2015, will provide high resolution global measurements of soil moisture, which is critical for plant growth and recharging underground water supplies. SMAP data will aid in predictions of agricultural productivity, improve weather and climate forecasts, and gauge severity of droughts and where floods might occur.
Methane. Hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, is making it possible for energy producers in the US to tap into new underground gas supplies. As a result, natural gas, which is 80% to 95% methane, is plentiful and relatively cheap. More and more, industry is switching from coal to natural gas to generate power and run factories. Good news and bad news. Natural gas is less polluting than coal, but burning it still pumps 7 billion tons of methane into the atmosphere every year. Also, many believe that fracking is bad for the environment, tainting aquifers, causing earthquakes, and releasing methane into the air. Energy producers say such charges are yet to be proven.
According to a study conducted by DOE’s Pacific Northwest Laboratory and 5 teams of international climate scientists, and published in Nature Advanced Online Publication on October 14, 2014, the switch to natural gas is doing nothing to slow global warming. The low price and plentiful supply encourages industry to burn gas and continue polluting, and postpones for many years any serious efforts by industry to fully develop non-polluting energy sources such as wind, thermal, and solar. The trade-off is temporarily good for the pocketbook, but continues to heat the planet and pollute the air we breathe.